Friday, July 25, 2014

The standard display editor - vi in Linux/Unix

vi is the standard editor available on every UNIX system. While it appears intimidating at first, it is extremely powerful and universal. Hence familiarity with it is important. A nice way to get started with learning this editor is by using the "vitutor". It can be copied to your home directory from either of the following directories:
  • /nfs/cis/phd/asb2718/vitutor
  • /nfs/cis/staff/rvrpci/pub/vitutor
Copy files, Readme, tutor.vi and vitutor.n. Out of these, tutor.vi is the main tutor. However go through the Readme and vitutor.n first. Type
vi tutor.vi
at the prompt to begin the tutor. The instructions are in the file and follow them as you read along. Note: It might be a good idea to copy the file tutor.vi to some other file and work with it instead as you would be making changes to it as you go along. 

  • vi supplies commands for:
    • inserting and deleting text
    • replacing text
    • moving around the file
    • finding and substituting strings
    • cutting and pasting text
    • reading and writing to other files
  • vi uses a "buffer"
    • While using vi to edit an existing file, you are actually working on a copy of the file that is held in a temporary buffer in your computer's memory.
    • If you invoked vi with a new filename, (or no file name) the contents of the file only exist in this buffer.
    • Saving a file writes the contents of this buffer to a disk file, replacing its contents. You can write the buffer to a new file or to some other file.
    • You can also decide not to write the contents of the buffer, and leave your original file unchanged.
  • vi operates in two different "modes":
    • Command mode
      • vi starts up in this mode
      • Whatever you type is interpreted as a command - not text to be inserted into the file.
      • The mode you need to be in if you want to "move around" the file.
    • Insert mode
      • This is the mode you use to type (insert) text.
      • There are several commands that you can use to enter this mode.
      • Once in this mode, whatever you type is interpreted as text to be included in the file. You can not "move around" the file in this mode.
      • Must press the ESC (escape) key to exit this mode and return to command mode.

vi Commands

  • Entering vi
  •      vi filename   - The filename can be the name of an 
    
                         existing file or the name of the file 
    
                         you want to create.  
    
         view filename - Starts vi in "read only" mode.  Allows 
    
                         you to look at a file without the risk  
    
                         of altering its contents. 
    
    
  • Exiting vi
  •      :q            - quit - if you have made any changes, vi
    
                         will warn you of this, and you'll need 
    
                         to use one of the other quits.
    
         :w            - write edit buffer to disk 
    
         :w filename   - write edit buffer to disk as filename 
    
         :wq           - write edit buffer to disk and quit 
    
         ZZ            - write edit buffer to disk and quit 
    
         :q!           - quit without writing edit buffer to disk 
    
    
  • Positioning within text
  • By character 
    
         left arrow    - left one character 
    
         right arrow   - right one character 
    
         backspace     - left one character 
    
         space         - right one character 
    
         h             - left one character 
    
         l             - right one character 
    
    
    
    By word 
    
         w             - beginning of next word 
    
         nw            - beginning of nth next word 
    
         b             - back to previous word 
    
         nb            - back to nth previous word 
    
         e             - end of next word 
    
         ne            - end of nth next word 
    
    
    
    By line 
    
         down arrow    - down one line 
    
         up arrow      - up one line 
    
         j             - down one line 
    
         k             - up one line 
    
         +             - beginning of next line down 
    
         -             - beginning of previous line up 
    
         0             - first column of current line (zero) 
    
         ^             - first character of current line 
    
         $             - last character of current line 
    
    
    
    By block 
    
         (             - beginning of sentence 
    
         )             - end of sentence 
    
         {             - beginning of paragraph 
    
         }             - end of paragraph 
    
    
    
    By screen 
    
         CTRL-f        - forward 1 screen 
    
         CTRL-b        - backward 1 screen 
    
         CTRL-d        - down 1/2 screen 
    
         CTRL-u        - up 1/2 screen 
    
         H             - top line on screen 
    
         M             - mid-screen 
    
         L             - last line on screen 
    
    
    
    Within file 
    
         nG            - line n within file 
    
         1G            - first line in file 
    
         G             - last line in file 
    
    
  • Inserting text
  •      a             - append text after cursor  *
    
         A             - append text at end of line  *
    
         i             - insert text before cursor  *
    
         I             - insert text at beginning of line  *
    
         o             - open a blank line after the current
    
                         line for text input  *
    
         O             - open a blank line before the current 
    
                         line for text input   *
    
    
    
         * Note: hit ESC (escape) key when finished inserting! 
    
    
  • Deleting text
  •      x             - delete character at cursor 
    
         dh            - delete character before cursor 
    
         nx            - delete n characters at cursor 
    
         dw            - delete next word  
    
         db            - delete previous word 
    
         dnw           - delete n words from cursor 
    
         dnb           - delete n words before cursor 
    
         d0            - delete to beginning of line 
    
         d$            - delete to end of line 
    
         D             - delete to end of line 
    
         dd            - delete current line 
    
         d(            - delete to beginning of sentence 
    
         d)            - delete to end of sentence 
    
         d{            - delete to beginning of paragraph 
    
         d}            - delete to end of paragraph 
    
         ndd           - delete n lines (start at current line) 
    
    
  • Changing text
  •      cw            - replace word with text  *
    
         cc            - replace line with text  *
    
         c0            - change to beginning of line  *
    
         c$            - change to end of line  *
    
         C             - change to end of line  *
    
         c(            - change to beginning of sentence  *
    
         c)            - change to end of sentence  *
    
         c{            - change to beginning of paragraph  *
    
         c}            - change to end of paragraph  *
    
         r             - overtype only 1 character 
    
         R             - overtype text until ESC is hit  *
    
         J             - join two lines 
    
    
    
         * Note: hit ESC (escape) key when finished changing! 
    
    
  • Copying lines
  •      yy            - "yank":  copy 1 line into buffer 
    
         nyy           - "yank":  copy n lines into buffer 
    
         p             - put contents of buffer after current 
    
                         line 
    
         P             - put contents of buffer before current 
    
                         line 
    
    
  • Moving lines (cutting and pasting)
  •      ndd           - delete n lines (placed in buffer) 
    
         p             - put contents of buffer after current 
    
                         line 
    
         P             - put contents of buffer before current 
    
                         line 
    
    
  • Searching / Substituting
  •      /str           - search forward for str 
    
         ?str           - search backward for str 
    
         n              - find next occurrence of current string 
    
         N              - repeat previous search in reverse 
    
                          direction 
    
         
    
         The substitution command requires a line range 
    
         specification.  If it is omitted, the default 
    
         is the current line only. The examples below 
    
         show how to specify line ranges. 
    
    
    
         :s/old/new     - substitute new for first occurrence 
    
                          of old in current line
    
         :s/old/new/g   - substitute new for all occurrences 
    
                          of old in current line
    
         :1,10s/old/new - substitute new for first occurrence
    
                          of old in lines 1 - 10
    
         :.,$s/old/new  - substitute new for first occurrence
    
                          of old in remainder of file
    
         :.,+5s/old/new - substitute new for first occurrence
    
                          of old in current line and next 5 lines
    
         :.,-5s/old/new - substitute new for first occurrence
    
                          of old in current line and previous
    
                          5 lines
    
         :%s/old/new/g  - substitute new for all occurrences
    
                          of old in the entire file
    
         :%s/old/new/gc - interactively substitute new for all 
    
                          occurrences of old - will prompt for 
    
                          y/n response for each substitution.
    
    
  • Miscellaneous commands
  •      u             - undo the last command (including undo) 
    
         .             - repeat last command 
    
         xp            - swap two adjacent characters 
    
         m[a-z]        - set a marker (a - z) 
    
         '[a-z]        - go to a previously set marker (a - z) 
    
         :!command     - execute specified UNIX command 
    
         :r  filename  - read/insert contents of filename after
    
                         current line.
    
         :1,100!fmt    - reformat the first 100 lines
    
         :!fmt         - reformat the entire file 
    
    

vi Options

  • You can change the way vi operates by changing the value of certain options which control specific parts of the vi environment.
  • To set an option during a vi session, use one of the commands below as required by the option:
  •      :set option_name
    
         :set option_name=value
    
    
  • Some examples of the more common options are described below.
  •      :set all       - shows all vi options in effect 
    
    
    
         :set ai        - set autoindent - automatically indents
    
                          each line of text 
    
    
    
         :set noai      - turn autoindent off  
    
    
    
         :set nu        - set line numbering on 
    
    
    
         :set nonu      - turn line numbering off 
    
    
    
         :set scroll=n  - sets number of lines to be scrolled 
    
                          to n.  Used by screen scroll commands. 
    
    
    
         :set sw=n      - set shiftwidth to n. Used by autoindent 
    
                          option.
    
    
    
         :set wm=n      - set wrapmargin to n. Specifies number 
    
                          of spaces to leave on right edge of the 
    
                          screen before wrapping words to next 
    
                          line. 
    
    
    
         :set showmode  - reminds you when you are inserting 
    
                          text. 
    
    
    
         :set ic        - ignore case of characters when 
    
                          performing a search. 
    
    
    
    
  • Options can be set permanently by putting them in a file called .exrc in your home directory. A sample .exrc file appears below. Note that you do not need the colon (:) as part of the option specification when you put the commands in a .exrc file. Also note that you can put them all on one line.
  •      set nu ai wm=5 showmode ic
    
     in Linux/Unix

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